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Uticaj ekonomskih sloboda i blagostanje žena

Ekonomske slobode, odnosno mogućnost pojedinaca da donosi sopstvene ekonomske odluke, je ključ za uspješan ekonomski i društveni napredak. Mnogobrojna akademska istraživanja su pokazala da ohrabrivanje ekonomskih sloboda vodi ka višoj stopi ekonomskog rasta, povećanom povjerenju u vladu i iskrenost njenih predstavnika, zaštiti građanske slobode, smanjenju siromaštva i poboljšanju ishoda u sektorima zdravstva i obrazovanja. Nažalost, u mnogim zemljama širom svijeta građani nemaju jednak pristup ekonomskim institucijama koje štite ove ekonomske slobode. Na primjer, zvanični zakoni u mnogim zemljama zabranju osobama ženskog pola da posjeduju bilo koji vid svojine, da učestvuju u dobrovoljnoj razmjeni ili da vode biznis.

U 2016. godini, Fraser Institut je objavi važno istraživanje u svom godišnjem izvještaju „Ekonomske slobode svijeta“ – Rodna ravnopravnost u zakonu i njegovi efekti na ekonomske slobode (Fike, 2016). Istraživanje je uključilo kreiranje Indeksa rodnog dispariteta, koji je koristio određene mjere kako bi prikazao polni disparitet u zakonima širom svijeta u pet oblasti: Sloboda kretanja, svojinska prava, finansijska prava, sloboda za rad i pravni status. Godišnji izvještaj ekonomskih sloboda za 2017. godinu koristi blago izmijenjen Indeks rodnog dispariteta kako bi pridao značaju varijacijama u pravnom tretiranju osoba ženskog pola. Ovaj izvještaj objašnjava kako Indeks rodnog dispariteta utiče na rangiranje zemalja širom svijeta na osnovu stepena ekonomskih sloboda, te izučava da li se u društvima u kojima su ove ekonomske slobode izraženije javlja značajni porast rezultata u ekonomskim i socijalnim sferama života kod osoba ženskog pola.

Prevod: Aljoša Drobnjak i Milena Radević

Description

Economic freedom, the ability of individuals to make their own economic decisions, has been widely shown to promote economic and social progress – a more robust economy, higher levels of income, increased trust and honesty in government, protection of civil liberties, reduction in poverty and improvements in health and educational outcomes. Unfortunately, in many countries economic freedom and the institutions that protect it are not equally accessible to all members of society.

Consider that women in many places are barred from moving freely within their countries and abroad; face barriers in owning property; cannot register a business in the same way as men; and are unable to open a bank account or obtain loans. Their testimony in court does not carry the same weight as men’s; they face restrictions on the number of hours they can work, and the type of profession they are allowed to pursue; and they are unable to enter into contracts in the same way as men.

A 2016 study, Gender Disparity in Legal Rights and Its Effect on Economic Freedom, introduced a Gender Disparity Index that captures the degree to which women around the world have the same legal rights as men using several measures to capture gender disparity, including  freedom of movement, property rights, financial rights, freedom to work, and legal status.

The Fraser Institute, which publishes Economic Freedom of the World, has incorporated gender disparity in its 2017 Economic Freedom Index and rankings.

Women and Progress is a project that measures the impact of economic freedom, adjusted for gender disparity, on women’s well-being. When women are free to make their own economic decisions, they are able to live better, wealthier, and healthier lives with greater independence.

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    The Lucha Institute is an European Research Hub, or Think Tank, with its residence in Montenegro that advocates limited role of the state, individual, economic and political freedoms, market economy, and entrepreneurship.
    We believe in a free, responsible and prosperous society of Europe. That is why The Lucha Institute connects young, talented and open-minded individuals all around Europe.

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